Promise 对象

看看一个例子

function fn1() {
  setTimeout(()=>{
    console.log('fn1')
  }, 1000)
}

function fn2() {
  setTimeout(()=>{
    console.log('fn2')
  }, 1000)
}

function fn3() {
  setTimeout(()=>{
    console.log('fn3')
  }, 1000)
}

对于以上代码如何实现: 1秒钟之后输出 fn1, 再过疫苗输出 fn2, 再过1秒输出 fn3 ?

可如下改装:

function fn1(callback) {
  setTimeout(()=>{
    console.log('fn1')
    callback()
  }, 1000)
}

function fn2(callback) {
  setTimeout(()=>{
    console.log('fn2')
    callback()
  }, 1000)
}

function fn3() {
  setTimeout(()=>{
    console.log('fn3')
  }, 1000)
}



fn1(function(){
  fn2(function(){
    fn3()
  })
})

回调地狱!

什么是 Promise

参考阮一峰 ES6教程

Promise 是一个对象,对象里存储一个状态,这个状态是可以随着内部的执行转化的,为以下三种状态之一:等待态(Pending)、完成态(Fulfilled)、拒绝态(Rejected)。

一开始,我们先设置好等状态从 pending 变成 fulfilled 和 rejected 的预案(当成功后我们做什么,失败时我们做什么)。

Promise 启动之后,当满足成功的条件时我们让状态从 pending 变成 fullfilled (执行 resolve);当满足失败的条件,我们让状态从 pending 变成 rejected(执行 reject)

Promise 范例

范例1

Promise.prototype.then / Promise.prototype.catch

function getIp() {
  var promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest()
    xhr.open('GET', 'https://easy-mock.com/mock/5ac2f80c3d211137b3f2843a/promise/getIp', true)
    xhr.onload = function(){
      var retJson = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText)  // {"ip":"58.100.211.137"}
      resolve(retJson.ip)
    }
    xhr.onerror = function(){
      reject('获取IP失败')
    }
    xhr.send()
  })
  return promise
}

function getCityFromIp(ip) {
  var promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest()
    xhr.open('GET', 'https://easy-mock.com/mock/5ac2f80c3d211137b3f2843a/promise/getCityFromIp?ip='+ip, true)
    xhr.onload = function(){
      var retJson = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText)  // {"city": "hangzhou","ip": "23.45.12.34"}
      resolve(retJson.city)
    }
    xhr.onerror = function(){
      reject('获取city失败')
    }
    xhr.send()
  })
  return promise
}
function getWeatherFromCity(city) {
  var promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest()
    xhr.open('GET', 'https://easy-mock.com/mock/5ac2f80c3d211137b3f2843a/promise/getWeatherFromCity?city='+city, true)
    xhr.onload = function(){
      var retJson = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText)   //{"weather": "晴天","city": "beijing"}
      resolve(retJson)
    }
    xhr.onerror = function(){
      reject('获取天气失败')
    }
    xhr.send()
  })
  return promise
}

getIp().then(function(ip){
  return getCityFromIp(ip)
}).then(function(city){
  return getWeatherFromCity(city)
}).then(function(data){
  console.log(data)
}).catch(function(e){
  console.log('出现了错误', e)
})

Promise.all

范例2


function getCityFromIp(ip) {
  var promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest()
    xhr.open('GET', 'https://easy-mock.com/mock/5ac2f80c3d211137b3f2843a/promise/getCityFromIp?ip='+ip, true)
    xhr.onload = function(){
      var retJson = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText)  // {"city": "hangzhou","ip": "23.45.12.34"}
      resolve(retJson)
    }
    xhr.onerror = function(){
      reject('获取city失败')
    }
    xhr.send()
  })
  return promise
}

var p1 = getCityFromIp('10.10.10.1')
var p2 = getCityFromIp('10.10.10.2')
var p3 = getCityFromIp('10.10.10.3')

//Promise.all, 当所有的 Promise 对象都完成后再执行
Promise.all([p1, p2, p3]).then(data=>{
  console.log(data)
})

Promise.race


function getCityFromIp(ip) {
  var promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest()
    xhr.open('GET', 'https://easy-mock.com/mock/5ac2f80c3d211137b3f2843a/promise/getCityFromIp?ip='+ip, true)
    xhr.onload = function(){
      var retJson = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText)  // {"city": "hangzhou","ip": "23.45.12.34"}
      resolve(retJson)
    }
    xhr.onerror = function(){
      reject('获取city失败')
    }
    setTimeout(()=>{
      xhr.send()
    }, Math.random()*1000)

  })
  return promise
}

var p1 = getCityFromIp('10.10.10.1')
var p2 = getCityFromIp('10.10.10.2')
var p3 = getCityFromIp('10.10.10.3')

//Promise.all, 当所有的 Promise 对象都完成后再执行
Promise.race([p1, p2, p3]).then(data=>{
  console.log(data)
})

对于开头回调地狱的解决

function fn1() {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject)=>{
    setTimeout(()=>{
      console.log('fn1...')
      resolve()
    }, 1000)    
  })
}

function fn2() {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject)=>{
    setTimeout(()=>{
      console.log('fn2...')
      resolve()
    }, 1000)    
  })
}

function fn3() {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject)=>{
    setTimeout(()=>{
      console.log('fn3...')
      resolve()
    }, 1000)    
  })
}

function onerror() {
  console.log('error')
}

fn1().then(fn2).then(fn3).catch(onerror)

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